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The chapters served as liaisons between the Navajo and the federal government, and also acted as precincts for the elections of tribal council delegates.

They served as forums for local tribal leaders. But, the chapters had no authority within the structure of the Navajo Nation government. In , the Navajo Tribal Council passed the "Local Governance Act," which expanded the political roles of the existing chapters.

It authorized them to make decisions on behalf of the chapter members and take over certain roles previously delegated to the council and executive branches.

This included entering into intergovernmental agreements with federal, state and tribal entities, subject to approval by the Intergovernmental Relations Committee of the council.

These agencies are similar to county entities and reflect the five Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA agencies created in the early years of the Navajo Nation.

Agencies are further divided into chapters as the smallest political unit, similar to municipalities. Michaels, Arizona. The Navajo law enforcement consists of roughly tribal police officers with only 3 non-native officers.

Certain classes of crimes, such as capital cases, are prosecuted and adjudicated in Federal courts. Park Rangers, U. In the weeks following, two other primary candidates sued in tribal court, invoking a never-used s law to require assessment of the candidates' skills in the Navajo Language.

On October 23, , [41] the Office of Hearings and Appeals of the tribe held the first hearing on the complaint filed against Deschene.

The meeting was presided by chief hearing officer Richie Nez. Later that day, the Navajo Supreme Court, in a special session on the matter, enforced the ruling from the lower Court body and ordered that the Navajo government remove Deschene from the presidential ballot because of his lack of Navajo language skills.

The High Court ruled that the presidential election scheduled for November 4 12 days later , would be postponed, and ordered that it be held by the end of January Chief Justice Herb Yazzie [45] and Associate Justice Eleanor Shirley ruled for the 2—1 majority; Justice Irene Black wrote in her dissent that the technicality must be sent back to the lower court for correction there.

The decision did not outline who would act as executive at the end of the current president's term January The legislation dissolved the language requirement of the qualifications sections for president.

The legislation allowed for Chris Deschene's participation. The unofficial tally found Joe Shirley Jr. The Navajo Council scheduled a primary and general election for June and August Through a controversial agreement and resolution, the Court and the Council appointed Ben Shelly to act as interim President.

In the special election, businessman Russell Begaye was elected as president and Jonathan Nez as vice-president. In May , they were sworn in.

Begaye supports encouraging native language use among the Navajo, who have the most members speaking a native language of nearly any tribe.

Approximately half of its , members speak Navajo. He came to office supporting the Grand Canyon Escalade, a proposed project to increase tourism at the canyon, as well as initiatives to develop a rail port to export crops and coal from the reservation and to pursue clean coal technology.

The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority provides utility services for houses. By there was a campaign to electrify remaining houses without electricity.

As of [update] about 15, houses, with 60, residents, did not have electricity; at that time the authority electrified, on an annual a basis, houses.

In December , Ben Shelly led a delegation of Navajos overseas to Israel, where they toured the country as representatives for the Navajo people.

In April , Shelly's aide, Deswood Tome, led a delegation of Israeli agricultural specialists on a tour of resources on the Navajo Nation. The visit was criticized by some indigenous people who view Palestinian plight as similar to their own.

The agreement lessened the contentious land disagreement with a year lease to Navajos with claims dating to before the US occupation. Navajo Territory in New Mexico is popularly referred as the "Checkerboard" area since the Federal Government's attempt to diversify lands with non-native lands.

Thus these Navajo lands are intermingled with fee lands, owned by both Navajos and non-Navajos, and federal and state lands under various jurisdictions.

Much of the Navajo Nation is situated atop the Colorado Plateau. To maintain consistent time throughout its territory, the Navajo Nation observes daylight saving time DST on its Arizona land as well as on its Utah and New Mexico land, even though the rest of Arizona, including the Hopi Reservation , an enclave within the Arizona portion of the Nation, have opted out of DST.

According to the census, the Navajo Nation had a population of , The average family size was 4. Historically, the Navajo Nation resisted compulsory western education, including boarding schools, as imposed by General Richard Henry Pratt in the aftermath of the Long Walk.

Education, and retention of the Navajo student, are significant priorities. Over public, private and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools serve Nation students from kindergarten through high school.

The Nation runs community Head Start Programs, the only educational program fully operated by the Navajo Nation government.

Post-secondary education and vocational training are available on and off the territory. The Nation has six systems of secondary academic institutions that serve Navajo students, including:.

The college also operates seven other sub-campuses throughout the nation. The Navajo Nation Council founded the college in as the first tribal college in the United States.

Students are prepared for further studies and employment in a multi-cultural and technological world. Located in Crownpoint, New Mexico, Navajo Technical University is a tribal university offering various vocational, technical, and academic degrees and certificates.

NTU was originally opened in as the Navajo Skill Center with the intention of providing educational opportunity of the unemployed population of the Navajo Nation.

The center has since been renamed multiple time in response to growth and expansion. Finally, in it was named a "university" in recognition of its program expansion under resolution codified by The Navajo Nation Council.

Extensive uranium mining took place in areas of the Navajo Nation before environmental laws were passed or enforced on the control of hazardous wastes of such operations, or their fallout.

Studies [ which? Several types of cancer occur at much higher rates than the national average in these locations. The Navajo are uniquely affected by a rare and life-threatening autosomal recessive multisystem disorder called Navajo Neurohepatopathology NNH , a genetic condition estimated to occur in 1 of every 1, live births.

Other symptoms include corneal anesthesia and scarring , acral mutilation , cerebral leukoencephalopathy , failure to thrive , and recurrent metabolic acidosis with intercurrent infections.

Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem among the Navajo, Hopi and Pima tribes, who are diagnosed at a rate about four times higher than the age-standardized U.

Medical researchers believe increased consumption of carbohydrates, coupled with genetic factors, play significant roles in the emergence of this chronic disease among Native Americans.

One in every 2, children in the Navajo population inherits severe combined immunodeficiency SCID , a genetic disorder that results in children with virtually no immune system.

In the general population, the genetic disorder is much more rare, affecting one in , children. The disorder is sometimes known as "bubble boy disease".

This condition is a significant cause of illness and death among Navajo children. Research reveals a similar genetic pattern among the related Apache.

Without the gene, children's bodies are unable to repair DNA or develop disease-fighting cells. Beginning April 12, a hour weekend curfew was declared.

On April 25, the Nation announced that it was joining 10 other tribes in a lawsuit against the U. An important part of the Navajo economy and culture is based on the raising of sheep and goats.

Navajo families process the wool and sell it for cash, or turn it into yarn and produce blankets and rugs for sale. The Navajo are noted for their skill in creating turquoise and silver jewelry.

Navajo artists have other traditional arts , such as sand painting, sculpture, and pottery. The Navajo Nation has created a mixture of industry and business which has provided the Navajo with alternative opportunities to traditional occupations.

Mining — especially of coal and uranium provided significant income to both the Navajo Nation and individual Navajos in the second half of the 20th century.

The volume of coal mined on the Navajo Nation land has declined in the early 21st century. It closed in January The Kayenta mine provided the majority of leased revenues for the tribe.

The Kayenta mine also provided wages to those Navajos who were part of its employees. The uranium market, which was active during and after the second World War, slowed near the end of that period.

The Nation has suffered considerable environmental contamination and health effects as a result of poor regulation of uranium mining.

As of , the Navajo Nation has prohibited uranium mining altogether within its borders. There are developed and potential oil and gas fields on the Navajo Nation.

The oldest and largest group of fields is in the Paradox Basin in the Four Corners area. The first well was drilled in the Aneth Extension in In the Paradox Basin fields were injected with water and Co2 to increase declining production.

The selling of leases and oil royalties have changed over the years. Congress appointed Utah as trustee on behalf of Navajos living in San Juan County, Utah for any potential revenues that came from natural resources in the area.

Utah initially created a 3-person committee to make leases, receive royalties and improve the living conditions for Utah Navajos. As the revenues and resulting expenditures increased, Utah created the 12 member Navajo Commission to do the operational work.

There are several Navajo organizations that deal with oil and gas. NTUA plans to develop this to a megawatt capacity at peak.

An estimated — people will construct the facility; it will have 10 permanent jobs. Permitting and negotiations involve tribal, federal, state and local stakeholders.

The wind project has foundered because of a "long feud between Cameron [Chapter] and Window Rock [central government] over which company to back.

Negotiations with Clipper Windpower looked promising but that company was put up for sale after the recession. Tourism is important to the Nation.

Parks and attractions within traditional Navajo lands include:. An important small business group on the Navajo Nation is handmade arts and crafts industry, which markets both high- and medium-end quality goods made by Navajo artisans, jewelers and silversmiths.

The Navajo Nation is served by various print media operations. Created by the Navajo Nation Council in , it has been privatized.

It continues to be the newspaper of record for the Navajo Nation. Other newsprint groups also serve the Nation.

Non-Navajo papers also target Navajo audiences, such as the Gallup Independent. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American Indian territory in the Southwestern United States.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Indian Reservation. Location of the Navajo Nation.

Checkerboard-area in lighter shade see text. For the history prior to , see Navajo people. See also: Supreme Court of the Navajo Nation.

Main article: President of the Navajo Nation. Main article: Navajo Nation Council. Main article: Navajo Nation Police. This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies.

Please help improve it by rewriting it in a balanced fashion that contextualizes different points of view. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.

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See also: List of communities on the Navajo Nation. See also: Uranium mining and the Navajo people. United States portal. Retrieved The Navajo Political Experience.

The Navajo Language. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. Navajo Times. January 24, Dine Policy Institute.

Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 9 Apr Roessel, Ruth ed. Navajo Stories of the Long Walk Period. Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 13 October FindLaw, a Thomson Reuters business.

Kagama — U. Archived from the original on In and the Navajo and Spanish mounted major expeditions against each other's settlements.

In May another peace was established. Similar patterns of peace-making, raiding, and trading among the Navajo, Spanish, Apache, Comanche, and Hopi continued until the arrival of Americans in On November 21, , following an invitation from a small party of American soldiers under the command of Captain John Reid, who journeyed deep into Navajo country and contacted him, Narbona and other Navajo negotiated a treaty of peace with Colonel Alexander Doniphan at Bear Springs, Ojo del Oso later the site of Fort Wingate.

This agreement was not honored by some Navajo, nor by some New Mexicans. Calhoun, an Indian agent—led a force of soldiers into Navajo country, penetrating Canyon de Chelly.

The treaty acknowledged the transfer of jurisdiction from the United Mexican States to the United States. The treaty allowed forts and trading posts to be built on Navajo land.

The United States, on its part, promised "such donations [and] such other liberal and humane measures, as [it] may deem meet and proper.

During the next 10 years, the U. Military records cite this development as a precautionary measure to protect citizens and the Navajo from each other.

Over New Mexican militia conducted a campaign against the Navajo, against the wishes of the Territorial Governor, in — They killed Navajo warriors, captured women and children for slaves, and destroyed crops and dwellings.

The Navajo call this period Naahondzood , "the fearing time. In , Brigadier-General James H. Carleton ordered Carson to kill Mescalero Apache men and destroy any Mescalero property he could find.

Carleton believed these harsh tactics would bring any Indian Tribe under control. The Mescalero surrendered and were sent to the new reservation called Bosque Redondo.

In , Carleton ordered Carson to use the same tactics on the Navajo. Carson and his force swept through Navajo land, killing Navajo and destroying crops and dwellings, fouling wells, and capturing livestock.

Facing starvation and death, Navajo groups came in to Fort Defiance for relief. On July 20, , the first of many groups departed to join the Mescalero at Bosque Redondo.

Other groups continued to come in though However, not all the Navajo came in or were found. Some lived near the San Juan River, some beyond the Hopi villages, and others lived with Apache bands.

The internment at Bosque Redondo was disastrous for the Navajo, as the government failed to provide an adequate supply of water, wood, provisions, and livestock for the 4,—5, people.

Large-scale crop failure and disease were also endemic during this time, as were raids by other tribes and civilians. Some Navajo froze during the winter because they could make only poor shelters from the few materials and resources they were given.

This period is known among the Navajo as "The Fearing Time". Conflicts resulted. In , the Treaty of Bosque Redondo was negotiated between Navajo leaders and the federal government allowing the surviving Navajo to return to a reservation on a portion of their former homeland.

The United States military continued to maintain forts on the Navajo reservation in the years following the Long Walk. Between and , the military employed Navajo as "Indian Scouts" at Fort Wingate to assist their regular units.

It operated between and as an anti-raid task force working to maintain the peaceful terms of the Navajo treaty.

By treaty, the Navajo were allowed to leave the reservation for trade, with permission from the military or local Indian agent.

Eventually, the arrangement led to a gradual end in Navajo raids, as the tribe was able to increase the size of their livestock herds and cultivated crops.

In addition, the tribe gained an increase in the size of the Navajo reservation from 3. But economic conflicts with non-Navajos continued for many years as civilians and companies exploited resources assigned to the Navajo.

The US government made leases for livestock grazing, took land for railroad development, and permitted mining on Navajo land without consultation with the tribe.

In , Lt. Parker, accompanied by 10 enlisted men and two scouts, went up the San Juan River to separate the Navajo and citizens who had encroached on Navajo land.

Lockett, with the aid of 42 enlisted soldiers, was joined by Lt. Holomon at Navajo Springs. In , citizens Palmer, Lockhart, and King fabricated a charge of horse stealing and randomly attacked a dwelling on the reservation.

Two Navajo men and all three whites died as a result, but a woman and a child survived. Kerr with two Navajo scouts examined the ground and then met with several hundred Navajo at Houcks Tank.

Rancher Bennett, whose horse was allegedly stolen, told Kerr that his horses were stolen by the three whites to catch a horse thief. Scott went to the San Juan River] with two scouts and 21 enlisted men.

The Navajos believed Lt. Scott was there to drive off the whites who had settled on the reservation and had fenced off the river from the Navajo.

Scott found evidence of many non-Navajo ranches. Only three were active, and the owners wanted payment for their improvements before leaving.

Scott ejected them. In , a local rancher refused to pay the Navajo a fine of livestock. The Navajo tried to collect it, and whites in southern Colorado and Utah claimed that 9, of the Navajo were on a warpath.

A small military detachment out of Fort Wingate restored white citizens to order. In , an Indian agent ordered a Navajo and his three wives to come in, and then arrested them for having a plural marriage.

A small group of Navajo used force to free the women and retreated to Beautiful Mountain with 30 or 40 sympathizers. They refused to surrender to the agent, and local law enforcement and military refused the agent's request for an armed engagement.

General Scott arrived, and with the help of Henry Chee Dodge , a leader among the Navajo, defused the situation. During the time on the reservation, the Navajo tribe was forced to assimilate to white society.

Navajo children were sent to boarding schools within the reservation and off the reservation. Once the children arrived at the boarding school, their lives changed dramatically.

European Americans taught the classes under an English-only curriculum and punished any student caught speaking Navajo.

Other conditions included inadequate food, overcrowding, required manual labor in kitchens, fields, and boiler rooms; and military-style uniforms and haircuts.

Change did not occur in these boarding schools until after the Meriam Report was published in by the Secretary of Interior, Hubert Work.

This report discussed Indian boarding schools as being inadequate in terms of diet, medical services, dormitory overcrowding, undereducated teachers, restrictive discipline, and manual labor by the students to keep the school running.

This report was the precursor to education reforms initiated under President Franklin D. Roosevelt , under which two new schools were built on the Navajo reservation.

But Rough Rock Day School was run in the same militaristic style as Fort Defiance and did not implement the educational reforms. Navajo accounts of this school portray it as having a family-like atmosphere with home-cooked meals, new or gently used clothing, humane treatment, and a Navajo-based curriculum.

Educators found the Evangelical Missionary School curriculum to be much more beneficial for the Navajo children. It is a repository for sound recordings, manuscripts, paintings, and sandpainting tapestries of the Navajos.

It also featured exhibits to express the beauty, dignity, and logic of Navajo religion. When Klah met Cabot in , he had witnessed decades of efforts by the US government and missionaries to assimilate the Navajos into mainstream society.

The museum was founded to preserve the religion and traditions of the Navajo, which Klah was sure would otherwise soon be lost forever. The Navajo Livestock Reduction was imposed upon the Navajo Nation by the federal government starting in the , during the Great Depression.

Worried about large herds in the arid climate, at a time when the Dust Bowl was endangering the Great Plains, the government decided that the land of the Navajo Nation could support only a fixed number of sheep, goats, cattle, and horses.

The Federal government believed that land erosion was worsening in the area and the only solution was to reduce the number of livestock. In many ways, he worked to reform government relations with the Native American tribes, but the reduction program was devastating for the Navajo, for whom their livestock was so important.

The government set land capacity in terms of "sheep units". In the Navajo grazed 1,, mature sheep units. Collier's solution was to first launch a voluntary reduction program, which was made mandatory two years later in The government paid for part of the value of each animal, but it did nothing to compensate for the loss of future yearly income for so many Navajo.

In the matrilineal and matrilocal world of the Navajo, women were especially hurt, as many lost their only source of income with the reduction of livestock herds.

The Navajo did not understand why their centuries-old practices of raising livestock should change. Dippie adds that, "He became an object of 'burning hatred' among the very people whose problems so preoccupied him.

Many Navajo men volunteered for military service in keeping with their warrior culture, and they served in integrated units.

The Navajo gained firsthand experience with how they could assimilate into the modern world, and many did not return to the overcrowded reservation, which had few jobs.

Four hundred Navajo code talkers played a famous role during World War II by relaying radio messages using their own language.

The Japanese were unable to understand or decode it. In the s, large quantities of uranium were discovered in Navajo land. From then into the early 21st century, the U.

The Navajo have claimed high rates of death and illness from lung disease and cancer resulting from environmental contamination. Since the s, legislation has helped to regulate the industry and reduce the toll, but the government has not yet offered holistic and comprehensive compensation.

Using their own language they utilized a military code; for example, the Navajo word "turtle" represented a tank. In , Marine staff officers composed several combat simulations and the Navajo translated it and transmitted in their dialect to another Navajo on the other line.

This Navajo then translated it back in English faster than any other cryptographic facilities, which demonstrated their efficacy. Once the code talkers completed training in the States, they were sent to the Pacific for assignment to the Marine combat divisions.

With that said, there was never a crack in the Navajo language, it was never deciphered. It is known that many more Navajos volunteered to become code talkers than could be accepted; however, an undetermined number of other Navajos served as Marines in the war, but not as code talkers.

Their patriotism and honor inevitably earned them the respect of all Americans. Like other Apacheans, the Navajos were semi-nomadic from the 16th through the 20th centuries.

Their extended kinship groups had seasonal dwelling areas to accommodate livestock, agriculture, and gathering practices. As part of their traditional economy, Navajo groups may have formed trading or raiding parties, traveling relatively long distances.

There is a system of clans which defines relationships between individuals and families. The clan system is exogamous : people can only marry and date partners outside their own clans, which for this purpose include the clans of their four grandparents.

Some Navajo favor their children to marry into their father's clan. While clans are associated with a geographical area, the area is not for the exclusive use of any one clan.

Members of a clan may live hundreds of miles apart but still have a clan bond. Historically, the structure of the Navajo society is largely a matrilineal system, in which the family of the women owned livestock, dwellings, planting areas and livestock grazing areas.

Once married, a Navajo man would follow a matrilocal residence and live with his bride in her dwelling and near her mother's family.

Daughters or, if necessary, other female relatives were traditionally the ones who received the generational property inheritance.

In cases of marital separation, women would maintain the property and children. Children are "born to" and belong to the mother's clan, and are "born for" the father's clan.

The mother's eldest brother has a strong role in her children's lives. As adults, men represent their mother's clan in tribal politics. Neither sex can live without the other in the Navajo culture.

Men and women are seen as contemporary equals as both a male and female are needed to reproduce. Although women may carry a bigger burden, fertility is so highly valued that males are expected to provide economic resources known as bride wealth.

Corn is a symbol of fertility in Navajo culture as they eat white corn in the wedding ceremonies.

A hogan , the traditional Navajo home, is built as a shelter for either a man or for a woman. Male hogans are square or conical with a distinct rectangular entrance, while a female hogan is an eight-sided house.

Navajos also have several types of hogans for lodging and ceremonial use. She writes, "even today, a solidly constructed, log-walled Hogan is preferred by many Navajo families.

Those who practice the Navajo religion regard the hogan as sacred.

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Scott went to the San Juan River] with two scouts and 21 enlisted men. The Navajos believed Lt. Scott was there to drive off the whites who had settled on the reservation and had fenced off the river from the Navajo.

Scott found evidence of many non-Navajo ranches. Only three were active, and the owners wanted payment for their improvements before leaving.

Scott ejected them. In , a local rancher refused to pay the Navajo a fine of livestock. The Navajo tried to collect it, and whites in southern Colorado and Utah claimed that 9, of the Navajo were on a warpath.

A small military detachment out of Fort Wingate restored white citizens to order. In , an Indian agent ordered a Navajo and his three wives to come in, and then arrested them for having a plural marriage.

A small group of Navajo used force to free the women and retreated to Beautiful Mountain with 30 or 40 sympathizers. They refused to surrender to the agent, and local law enforcement and military refused the agent's request for an armed engagement.

General Scott arrived, and with the help of Henry Chee Dodge , a leader among the Navajo, defused the situation.

During the time on the reservation, the Navajo tribe was forced to assimilate to white society. Navajo children were sent to boarding schools within the reservation and off the reservation.

Once the children arrived at the boarding school, their lives changed dramatically. European Americans taught the classes under an English-only curriculum and punished any student caught speaking Navajo.

Other conditions included inadequate food, overcrowding, required manual labor in kitchens, fields, and boiler rooms; and military-style uniforms and haircuts.

Change did not occur in these boarding schools until after the Meriam Report was published in by the Secretary of Interior, Hubert Work.

This report discussed Indian boarding schools as being inadequate in terms of diet, medical services, dormitory overcrowding, undereducated teachers, restrictive discipline, and manual labor by the students to keep the school running.

This report was the precursor to education reforms initiated under President Franklin D. Roosevelt , under which two new schools were built on the Navajo reservation.

But Rough Rock Day School was run in the same militaristic style as Fort Defiance and did not implement the educational reforms.

Navajo accounts of this school portray it as having a family-like atmosphere with home-cooked meals, new or gently used clothing, humane treatment, and a Navajo-based curriculum.

Educators found the Evangelical Missionary School curriculum to be much more beneficial for the Navajo children. It is a repository for sound recordings, manuscripts, paintings, and sandpainting tapestries of the Navajos.

It also featured exhibits to express the beauty, dignity, and logic of Navajo religion. When Klah met Cabot in , he had witnessed decades of efforts by the US government and missionaries to assimilate the Navajos into mainstream society.

The museum was founded to preserve the religion and traditions of the Navajo, which Klah was sure would otherwise soon be lost forever.

The Navajo Livestock Reduction was imposed upon the Navajo Nation by the federal government starting in the , during the Great Depression.

Worried about large herds in the arid climate, at a time when the Dust Bowl was endangering the Great Plains, the government decided that the land of the Navajo Nation could support only a fixed number of sheep, goats, cattle, and horses.

The Federal government believed that land erosion was worsening in the area and the only solution was to reduce the number of livestock.

In many ways, he worked to reform government relations with the Native American tribes, but the reduction program was devastating for the Navajo, for whom their livestock was so important.

The government set land capacity in terms of "sheep units". In the Navajo grazed 1,, mature sheep units. Collier's solution was to first launch a voluntary reduction program, which was made mandatory two years later in The government paid for part of the value of each animal, but it did nothing to compensate for the loss of future yearly income for so many Navajo.

In the matrilineal and matrilocal world of the Navajo, women were especially hurt, as many lost their only source of income with the reduction of livestock herds.

The Navajo did not understand why their centuries-old practices of raising livestock should change. Dippie adds that, "He became an object of 'burning hatred' among the very people whose problems so preoccupied him.

Many Navajo men volunteered for military service in keeping with their warrior culture, and they served in integrated units. The Navajo gained firsthand experience with how they could assimilate into the modern world, and many did not return to the overcrowded reservation, which had few jobs.

Four hundred Navajo code talkers played a famous role during World War II by relaying radio messages using their own language.

The Japanese were unable to understand or decode it. In the s, large quantities of uranium were discovered in Navajo land.

From then into the early 21st century, the U. The Navajo have claimed high rates of death and illness from lung disease and cancer resulting from environmental contamination.

Since the s, legislation has helped to regulate the industry and reduce the toll, but the government has not yet offered holistic and comprehensive compensation.

Using their own language they utilized a military code; for example, the Navajo word "turtle" represented a tank.

In , Marine staff officers composed several combat simulations and the Navajo translated it and transmitted in their dialect to another Navajo on the other line.

This Navajo then translated it back in English faster than any other cryptographic facilities, which demonstrated their efficacy.

Once the code talkers completed training in the States, they were sent to the Pacific for assignment to the Marine combat divisions. With that said, there was never a crack in the Navajo language, it was never deciphered.

It is known that many more Navajos volunteered to become code talkers than could be accepted; however, an undetermined number of other Navajos served as Marines in the war, but not as code talkers.

Their patriotism and honor inevitably earned them the respect of all Americans. Like other Apacheans, the Navajos were semi-nomadic from the 16th through the 20th centuries.

Their extended kinship groups had seasonal dwelling areas to accommodate livestock, agriculture, and gathering practices. As part of their traditional economy, Navajo groups may have formed trading or raiding parties, traveling relatively long distances.

There is a system of clans which defines relationships between individuals and families. The clan system is exogamous : people can only marry and date partners outside their own clans, which for this purpose include the clans of their four grandparents.

Some Navajo favor their children to marry into their father's clan. While clans are associated with a geographical area, the area is not for the exclusive use of any one clan.

Members of a clan may live hundreds of miles apart but still have a clan bond. Historically, the structure of the Navajo society is largely a matrilineal system, in which the family of the women owned livestock, dwellings, planting areas and livestock grazing areas.

Once married, a Navajo man would follow a matrilocal residence and live with his bride in her dwelling and near her mother's family.

Daughters or, if necessary, other female relatives were traditionally the ones who received the generational property inheritance.

In cases of marital separation, women would maintain the property and children. Children are "born to" and belong to the mother's clan, and are "born for" the father's clan.

The mother's eldest brother has a strong role in her children's lives. As adults, men represent their mother's clan in tribal politics.

Neither sex can live without the other in the Navajo culture. Men and women are seen as contemporary equals as both a male and female are needed to reproduce.

Although women may carry a bigger burden, fertility is so highly valued that males are expected to provide economic resources known as bride wealth.

Corn is a symbol of fertility in Navajo culture as they eat white corn in the wedding ceremonies. A hogan , the traditional Navajo home, is built as a shelter for either a man or for a woman.

Male hogans are square or conical with a distinct rectangular entrance, while a female hogan is an eight-sided house. Navajos also have several types of hogans for lodging and ceremonial use.

She writes, "even today, a solidly constructed, log-walled Hogan is preferred by many Navajo families. Those who practice the Navajo religion regard the hogan as sacred.

The Beaver People gave Coyote logs and instructions on how to build the first hogan. Navajos made their hogans in the traditional fashion until the s, when they started to make them in hexagonal and octagonal shapes.

Hogans continue to be used as dwellings, especially by older Navajos, although they tend to be made with modern construction materials and techniques.

Some are maintained specifically for ceremonial purposes. The Navajo people believe they passed through three worlds before arriving in this world, the Fourth World or the Glittering World.

By , more than chapters operated across the territory. The chapters served as liaisons between the Navajo and the federal government, and also acted as precincts for the elections of tribal council delegates.

They served as forums for local tribal leaders. But, the chapters had no authority within the structure of the Navajo Nation government.

In , the Navajo Tribal Council passed the "Local Governance Act," which expanded the political roles of the existing chapters. It authorized them to make decisions on behalf of the chapter members and take over certain roles previously delegated to the council and executive branches.

This included entering into intergovernmental agreements with federal, state and tribal entities, subject to approval by the Intergovernmental Relations Committee of the council.

These agencies are similar to county entities and reflect the five Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA agencies created in the early years of the Navajo Nation.

Agencies are further divided into chapters as the smallest political unit, similar to municipalities. Michaels, Arizona. The Navajo law enforcement consists of roughly tribal police officers with only 3 non-native officers.

Certain classes of crimes, such as capital cases, are prosecuted and adjudicated in Federal courts. Park Rangers, U. In the weeks following, two other primary candidates sued in tribal court, invoking a never-used s law to require assessment of the candidates' skills in the Navajo Language.

On October 23, , [41] the Office of Hearings and Appeals of the tribe held the first hearing on the complaint filed against Deschene.

The meeting was presided by chief hearing officer Richie Nez. Later that day, the Navajo Supreme Court, in a special session on the matter, enforced the ruling from the lower Court body and ordered that the Navajo government remove Deschene from the presidential ballot because of his lack of Navajo language skills.

The High Court ruled that the presidential election scheduled for November 4 12 days later , would be postponed, and ordered that it be held by the end of January Chief Justice Herb Yazzie [45] and Associate Justice Eleanor Shirley ruled for the 2—1 majority; Justice Irene Black wrote in her dissent that the technicality must be sent back to the lower court for correction there.

The decision did not outline who would act as executive at the end of the current president's term January The legislation dissolved the language requirement of the qualifications sections for president.

The legislation allowed for Chris Deschene's participation. The unofficial tally found Joe Shirley Jr. The Navajo Council scheduled a primary and general election for June and August Through a controversial agreement and resolution, the Court and the Council appointed Ben Shelly to act as interim President.

In the special election, businessman Russell Begaye was elected as president and Jonathan Nez as vice-president. In May , they were sworn in.

Begaye supports encouraging native language use among the Navajo, who have the most members speaking a native language of nearly any tribe. Approximately half of its , members speak Navajo.

He came to office supporting the Grand Canyon Escalade, a proposed project to increase tourism at the canyon, as well as initiatives to develop a rail port to export crops and coal from the reservation and to pursue clean coal technology.

The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority provides utility services for houses. By there was a campaign to electrify remaining houses without electricity.

As of [update] about 15, houses, with 60, residents, did not have electricity; at that time the authority electrified, on an annual a basis, houses.

In December , Ben Shelly led a delegation of Navajos overseas to Israel, where they toured the country as representatives for the Navajo people.

In April , Shelly's aide, Deswood Tome, led a delegation of Israeli agricultural specialists on a tour of resources on the Navajo Nation.

The visit was criticized by some indigenous people who view Palestinian plight as similar to their own. The agreement lessened the contentious land disagreement with a year lease to Navajos with claims dating to before the US occupation.

Navajo Territory in New Mexico is popularly referred as the "Checkerboard" area since the Federal Government's attempt to diversify lands with non-native lands.

Thus these Navajo lands are intermingled with fee lands, owned by both Navajos and non-Navajos, and federal and state lands under various jurisdictions.

Much of the Navajo Nation is situated atop the Colorado Plateau. To maintain consistent time throughout its territory, the Navajo Nation observes daylight saving time DST on its Arizona land as well as on its Utah and New Mexico land, even though the rest of Arizona, including the Hopi Reservation , an enclave within the Arizona portion of the Nation, have opted out of DST.

According to the census, the Navajo Nation had a population of , The average family size was 4. Historically, the Navajo Nation resisted compulsory western education, including boarding schools, as imposed by General Richard Henry Pratt in the aftermath of the Long Walk.

Education, and retention of the Navajo student, are significant priorities. Over public, private and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools serve Nation students from kindergarten through high school.

The Nation runs community Head Start Programs, the only educational program fully operated by the Navajo Nation government.

Post-secondary education and vocational training are available on and off the territory. The Nation has six systems of secondary academic institutions that serve Navajo students, including:.

The college also operates seven other sub-campuses throughout the nation. The Navajo Nation Council founded the college in as the first tribal college in the United States.

Students are prepared for further studies and employment in a multi-cultural and technological world. Located in Crownpoint, New Mexico, Navajo Technical University is a tribal university offering various vocational, technical, and academic degrees and certificates.

NTU was originally opened in as the Navajo Skill Center with the intention of providing educational opportunity of the unemployed population of the Navajo Nation.

The center has since been renamed multiple time in response to growth and expansion. Finally, in it was named a "university" in recognition of its program expansion under resolution codified by The Navajo Nation Council.

Extensive uranium mining took place in areas of the Navajo Nation before environmental laws were passed or enforced on the control of hazardous wastes of such operations, or their fallout.

Studies [ which? Several types of cancer occur at much higher rates than the national average in these locations.

The Navajo are uniquely affected by a rare and life-threatening autosomal recessive multisystem disorder called Navajo Neurohepatopathology NNH , a genetic condition estimated to occur in 1 of every 1, live births.

Other symptoms include corneal anesthesia and scarring , acral mutilation , cerebral leukoencephalopathy , failure to thrive , and recurrent metabolic acidosis with intercurrent infections.

Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem among the Navajo, Hopi and Pima tribes, who are diagnosed at a rate about four times higher than the age-standardized U.

Medical researchers believe increased consumption of carbohydrates, coupled with genetic factors, play significant roles in the emergence of this chronic disease among Native Americans.

One in every 2, children in the Navajo population inherits severe combined immunodeficiency SCID , a genetic disorder that results in children with virtually no immune system.

In the general population, the genetic disorder is much more rare, affecting one in , children. The disorder is sometimes known as "bubble boy disease".

This condition is a significant cause of illness and death among Navajo children. Research reveals a similar genetic pattern among the related Apache.

Without the gene, children's bodies are unable to repair DNA or develop disease-fighting cells. Beginning April 12, a hour weekend curfew was declared.

On April 25, the Nation announced that it was joining 10 other tribes in a lawsuit against the U. An important part of the Navajo economy and culture is based on the raising of sheep and goats.

Navajo families process the wool and sell it for cash, or turn it into yarn and produce blankets and rugs for sale. The Navajo are noted for their skill in creating turquoise and silver jewelry.

Navajo artists have other traditional arts , such as sand painting, sculpture, and pottery. The Navajo Nation has created a mixture of industry and business which has provided the Navajo with alternative opportunities to traditional occupations.

Mining — especially of coal and uranium provided significant income to both the Navajo Nation and individual Navajos in the second half of the 20th century.

The volume of coal mined on the Navajo Nation land has declined in the early 21st century. It closed in January The Kayenta mine provided the majority of leased revenues for the tribe.

The Kayenta mine also provided wages to those Navajos who were part of its employees. The uranium market, which was active during and after the second World War, slowed near the end of that period.

The Nation has suffered considerable environmental contamination and health effects as a result of poor regulation of uranium mining.

As of , the Navajo Nation has prohibited uranium mining altogether within its borders. There are developed and potential oil and gas fields on the Navajo Nation.

The oldest and largest group of fields is in the Paradox Basin in the Four Corners area. The first well was drilled in the Aneth Extension in In the Paradox Basin fields were injected with water and Co2 to increase declining production.

The selling of leases and oil royalties have changed over the years. Congress appointed Utah as trustee on behalf of Navajos living in San Juan County, Utah for any potential revenues that came from natural resources in the area.

Utah initially created a 3-person committee to make leases, receive royalties and improve the living conditions for Utah Navajos.

As the revenues and resulting expenditures increased, Utah created the 12 member Navajo Commission to do the operational work.

There are several Navajo organizations that deal with oil and gas. NTUA plans to develop this to a megawatt capacity at peak.

An estimated — people will construct the facility; it will have 10 permanent jobs. Not all Navajos embrace traditional worship. Other faiths are available, ranging from Christian to the Native American Church, a worship that blends traditional Navajo religion and Christianity beliefs with the use of peyote.

Some Navajos hopscotch between faiths. Detractors from the traditional Navajo faith cite cost and a lack of access to medicine people. Others blame the American life that forces them to move into the city for jobs.

Subsequently, they lose ties with extended family relatives whose energy and resources are needed to pull off a successful ceremony. Many Navajo youth are born into other faiths, which their parents embrace and encourage.

Traditional Navajo faith also rides on the oral language. When medicine people such as Goldtooth call on the Holy People to bless an individual during a prayer, each deity carries a name.

To receive a blessing or help, the correct enunciation is required. Goldtooth notices more Navajo children speak only English, which forces medicine people like herself to modify their work.

Sometimes mothers recite the prayers in Navajo for their daughters. Goldtooth places the responsibility on the girls.

I make them do their own reciting in prayers rather than having a parent do the reciting. I explain how the prayer is for them and their future, and therefore they must do them themselves.

By the time the ceremony ends, most of the daughters are able to repeat the prayer in Navajo. The medicine woman also notices that change occurs when Navajo youth move into urban Navajo communities or off the Nation.

This includes respect for parents, elders, and other people. Navajo children are taught in the Navajo language to never speak harsh words, because they can inflict pain.

But Western instruction encourages youth to speak up and have an opinion—to be argumentative and to solve problems through an analytical process is prized in the American society.

Still, that may not be enough. W hen Navajo educator Rebecca M. Benally took the helm of the Montezuma Creek Elementary School in the northern portion of the Navajo Nation in Utah, the new staff disapproved of her promotion to principal.

They did not object to her wealth of experience in the education field, but to her gender. What shocked Benally even more was the attitude that masked the resistance by Navajo educators—especially female educators.

Christian missionaries in the s attempted to tame the wild surroundings, but even today the local Aneth Chapter House, one of communities on the Navajo Nation, is wedged in an arroyo.

So when Benally arrived, she was soon approached by a Navajo colleague who confided that her Mormon faith made it uncomfortable to work in a setting where a woman was in charge.

A clash of cultures seemed certain, because the Navajo culture is both matrilineal and matriarchal, while the Mormon-dominated community of Montezuma Creek promotes a patrilineal society.

The elementary school staff expected the Navajo educator to throw up her arms in defeat and walk away from criticism, as was traditional when change was suggested in the school community.

The workers did not realize that this Navajo educator knew more about them than they did about her, and she refused to wilt under pressure. She was on a mission to raise student test scores in order to pass the federal report card and to move Navajo kids out of special education.

Benally refused to give in.

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